The blood supply, the thickness and level of keratinization of the epithelium, and the presence of different pigments all affect the color of the gingiva. Melanin is the main thing that affects the color of the gums. Gingival hyperpigmentation is not a health problem, but many people, especially those with a gummy smile or a lot of gum showing, may see it as a cosmetic problem. The most common cause is melanin synthesis, or physiological pigmentation. However, some bad things, like smoking, can increase melanin pigmentation, so the severity of pigmentation is also related to how long and how many cigarettes a person smokes.

Therapeutic Techniques Gingival depigmentation is a procedure used to get rid of melanin hyperpigmentation of the gingiva. Several methods have been tried, with varying degrees of success. These include gingivectomy; gingivectomy with free gingival autografting; acellular dermal matrix allograft; electrosurgery; cryosurgery; and abrasion with a diamond bur. The problems with these techniques include bleeding during and after surgery; the need for anesthesia; the need for a periodontal pack or dressing; the risk of infection after surgery; swelling; etc.

Lasers with different wavelengths have been used without any problems and with good cosmetic results. During the depigmentation technique, diode lasers are used to remove excess melanin-pigmented epithelial tissue. The PIOON Laser has many wavelengths that can be used to do this procedure with or without touching the skin. In this case, only a topical anesthetic was used, and a wavelength of 980nm was used in contact mode with a scraping motion and ablative settings to remove the pigmented epithelium and a piece of the connective tissue while leaving the rest of the connective tissue alone. After the surgery, a laser bandage was put on the patient, and they were given post-surgery instructions and kept an eye on.

Hanaa M. El Shenawy and her colleagues found in 2015, using a wavelength of 980nm, that using a diode laser is a safe and effective way to treat gingival hyperpigmentation. It makes the gums look better and causes less pain than other treatments. In 2018, Eser Elemek said that using an 810nm diode laser for gingival depigmentation led to full healing, the best-looking results, and the least amount of pain for the patient.

Why are lasers used Since melanin and hemoglobin in soft tissue absorb laser light, it is a good way to get rid of pigmentation with little bleeding. It also makes it easier to deal with tissues, cuts down on time spent on the chair, and can be cleaned and sanitized. It also makes protein coagulum on the surface of the wound, which acts as a natural wound dressing and seals the ends of the sensory nerve endings. This gets rid of the need for periodontal packs and dressings and makes patients more interested in cosmetic laser treatment.

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